This tutorial on how to read
a COBOL layout was written specifically for our customers who have had a conversion
performed at Disc Interchange and have received a COBOL layout with the data.
It is intended to give you enough information to read most
simple layouts. It does not cover all topics or everything you would
find in a complex layout, and it is intended to explain COBOL layouts only
so you can use your converted data, not so you can write COBOL programs.
This article begins here: Reading COBOL Layouts where you will also find a topic index.
Contents of this section:
We know how to handle them!
05 MONTHLY-SALES-1 PIC S9(5)V99.But there's an easier way in COBOL. You can specify the field once and declare that it repeats 12 times. You do this with the OCCURS clause, like this:
05 MONTHLY-SALES-2 PIC S9(5)V99.
05 MONTHLY-SALES-3 PIC S9(5)V99.
05 MONTHLY-SALES-11 PIC S9(5)V99.
05 MONTHLY-SALES-12 PIC S9(5)V99.
05 MONTHLY-SALES OCCURS 12 TIMES PIC S9(5)V99.(By now you should also know this can be written on two lines like this):
05 MONTHLY-SALES OCCURS 12 TIMES PIC S9(5)V99.This specifies 12 fields, all of which have the same PIC, and is called a table (also called an array). The individual fields are referenced in COBOL by using subscripts, such as "MONTHLY-SALES(1)". This table occupies 84 bytes in the record (12 * (5+2)). (The sign is embedded, not separate, and the decimal is implied.)
The OCCURS can also be at the group level, and this is the most useful application of OCCURS. For example, all 25 line items on an invoice (75 fields) could be held in this group:
05 LINE-ITEMS OCCURS 25 TIMES. 10 QUANTITY PIC 9999. 10 DESCRIPTION PIC X(30). 10 UNIT-PRICE PIC S9(5)V99.Notice the OCCURS is listed at the group level, so the entire group occurs 25 times. The order of the data in the file is as-if you had specified multiple groups, like this:
05 LINE-ITEMS-1. 10 QUANTITY PIC 9999. 10 DESCRIPTION PIC X(30). 10 UNIT-PRICE PIC S9(5)V99.There can be nested occurs -- an occurs within an occurs. In the next example, suppose we stock ten products and we want to keep a record of the monthly sales of each product for the past 12 months. We could do just that with this table:
05 LINE-ITEMS-2. 10 QUANTITY PIC 9999. 10 DESCRIPTION PIC X(30). 10 UNIT-PRICE PIC S9(5)V99.
05 LINE-ITEMS-25. 10 QUANTITY PIC 9999. 10 DESCRIPTION PIC X(30). 10 UNIT-PRICE PIC S9(5)V99.
01 INVENTORY-RECORD. 05 INVENTORY-ITEM OCCURS 10 TIMES. 10 MONTHLY-SALES OCCURS 12 TIMES PIC 999.In this case, "INVENTORY-ITEM" is a group composed only of "MONTHLY-SALES", which occurs 12 times for each occurrence of an inventory item. This gives an array (table) of 10 * 12 fields. The only information in this record are the 120 monthly sales figures -- 12 months for each of 10 items.
We could also have a description for each item. The description would go under the 05 level INVENTORY-ITEM group, at the 10 level, the same as the monthly sales. Further, we could track, say, the sale price of each item for each month. A record which will do these things is:
01 INVENTORY-RECORD. 05 INVENTORY-ITEM OCCURS 10 TIMES. 10 ITEM-DESCRIPTION PIC X(30). 10 MONTHLY-SALES OCCURS 12 TIMES. 15 QUANTITY-SOLD PIC 999. 15 UNIT-PRICE PIC 9(5)V99.Notice we have made MONTHLY-SALES a group, which now contains two fields, and the whole group repeats 12 times for each instance of INVENTORY-ITEM. This short layout has 250 fields: two fields (QUANTITY-SOLD and UNIT-PRICE) that repeat 12 times for each inventory item, times 10 items, plus the ITEM-DESCRIPTION field for each of the 10 items. Fields and groups can be nested several levels deep, and it's possible to have thousands of fields in a layout only a couple pages long.
The OCCURS-DEPENDING-ON can include many subordinate fields and groups, all of which occur multiple times. Further, most compilers allow one or more (fixed) OCCURS to be nested within an OCCURS-DEPENDING-ON, and some compilers allow multiple OCCURS-DEPENDING-ON to be nested, or to occur in succession. This can get pretty involved, so we will only give one simple example, that of a patient's medical treatment-history record .
01 PATIENT-TREATMENTS. 05 PATIENT-NAME PIC X(30). 05 PATIENT-SS-NUMBER PIC 9(9). 05 NUMBER-OF-TREATMENTS PIC 99 COMP-3. 05 TREATMENT-HISTORY OCCURS 0 TO 50 TIMES DEPENDING ON NUMBER-OF-TREATMENTS INDEXED BY TREATMENT-POINTER. 10 TREATMENT-DATE. 15 TREATMENT-DAY PIC 99. 15 TREATMENT-MONTH PIC 99. 15 TREATMENT-YEAR PIC 9(4). 10 TREATING-PHYSICIAN PIC X(30). 10 TREATMENT-CODE PIC 99.Here are the significant points of this record:
Our article Occurs...Depending On discusses this further, and has suggestions for converting variable tables to PC files.
Next: Part 6 Redefined Records
For more articles on data conversion, see our TechTalk Index.
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